Lesson 1: Networks

What Kind of Networks Are There?

Before we get started in hacking, it is worth investing a little time in learning the 3 more common networks. This will enable you to quickly advance through these tutorials and lessons with minimal confusion.

  • Local Area Network (LAN)
    • Restricted to a Limited Area. Example: School, Work, Home
    • Provided By Routers
  • Wide Area Network (WAN)
    • Covers Vast Areas
    • Can be provided by Internet Service Providers (ISP)
    • The Internet Itself is a WAN

How LAN and WAN Work Together?

The easiest way to see how they are connected is your home router. Most come with one WAN port that you will connect to your modem, or a telephone (if you still live in 1999) through dial-up, both of which is providing you with internet from your ISP. Your router will also have LAN ports allowing you to connect devices through Ethernet cables. You may have noticed, even if the Internet quits working in your home, your computers are still capable of interacting with each other. This is because the LAN does not require the WAN to communicate locally.

By typing ipconfig  in a Windows command prompt, you can see what IP address your computer has on the LAN. Similarly, you can use ifconfig in a Linux terminal to achieve the same results. On the other hand, to obtain your WAN IP address that the world sees when you or anyone else on your home network has any interaction with the Internet is a little more difficult. First, you need to sign in your router through your browser. Where it is located varies router to router. A quicker and simpler method is to just visit a website that will tell you.

Windows ipconfig Command networks

Bend Google to Your Will

If you want any further clarification on any of the topics covered, do not be afraid to start googling any thing that you do not understand. Some tips when it comes to using Google:

  • If you are searching for a keyword(s) included within particular file types
    • filetype:pdf
  • If you desire returning only results from one site
    • site:hack-tutorial.com
  • If you require something specifically in a URL
    • inurl:FindTheString
  • You can find these and many more in Offensive Security’s Google Hacking Database

Real World Example: If I was looking for a book called “hack-tutorial”, this would be my search:

  • filetype:pdf hack-tutorial